Credit...Tyler Hicks/The New York Times

Ukraine Under Attack: Documenting the Russian Invasion

Photographers in and around Ukraine have captured the horrors of war.

Atrocities against civilians. Hundreds of casualties, with the toll rising. Millions of refugees. Thriving cities besieged and reduced to rubble.

Ukrainians continue to resist the Russian onslaught. Joined by civilians who have picked up arms, Ukrainian forces have held on to Kyiv, the capital, and forced the Russian military to change its strategy, shifting its attention to the east.

After retreating from northern Ukraine, Moscow has focused on the battle for Sievierodonetsk, a key eastern city, as it tries to capture the entire Donbas region.

But even where Ukraine has succeeded in pushing the Russians back, there has often come unimaginable terror. Retreating Russian troops left a trail of bodies in the suburbs of Kyiv. In the town of Bucha, evidence unearthed by local officials, residents and journalists suggested the Russians had killed civilians recklessly and sometimes sadistically.

The battle is now converging on the eastern region, which is familiar ground for Russian forces because they invaded the area in 2014. The massing of troops there has led to yet another round of evacuations, as thousands fled the region in anticipation of an escalation in fighting.

For the past four months, photographers with The New York Times and other news organizations throughout Ukraine have chronicled the ordeal of war.

This gallery contains graphic images.

A U.S.-supplied M777 howitzer fires at Russian positions in the Donetsk region, Ukraine, on June 21.

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Credit...Tyler Hicks/The New York Times

A Ukrainian soldier at a mass grave in the hills above the city of Lysychansk, in eastern Ukraine, on June 16.

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Credit...Tyler Hicks/The New York Times

Doctors and nurses at a hospital in Sloviansk worked to stabilize a Ukrainian soldier who had been wounded in the leg and torso by shrapnel from a Russian artillery strike, before transferring him to another hospital on June 1.

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Credit...Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

Svitlana Zhyvaga, 54, who lives in Lysychansk, crossing one of the destroyed bridges still being used by civilians to go back and forth from Lysychansk to Sievierodonetsk, on June 17.

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Credit...Tyler Hicks/The New York Times

In Hostomel, northwest of Kyiv, on June 20, a large mirror is seen outside a destroyed house that was part of a large residential townhouse project occupied by Russian troops during clashes with Ukrainian forces in late February.

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Credit...Mauricio Lima for The New York Times

In Lysychansk on June 15.

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Credit...Tyler Hicks/The New York Times

Residents of Lysychansk being evacuated by bus on June 13.

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Credit...Tyler Hicks/The New York Times

Children in a park in Borodyanka on June 2.

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Credit...Nicole Tung for The New York Times

A funeral in Bucha on June 11 for a soldier killed by a Russian sniper. Ukraine is losing as many as 200 soldiers a day, officials estimate.

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Credit...Nicole Tung for The New York Times

Ukrainian forces firing a salvo of rockets toward Russian positions near Sievierodonetsk on June 2.

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Credit...Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

Police and forensic investigators exhumed the bodies of seven men, believed to be civilians killed by Russian forces in March, in a forest west of Bucha on June 13.

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Credit...Nicole Tung for The New York Times

Oleh Turash revisiting the basement of a school in Yahidne on June 8 where he was held with over 300 villagers by Russian forces in March.

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Credit... Nicole Tung for The New York Times

Monks and others took cover in a stairwell at the Sviatohirsk monastery as Russian artillery shells landed nearby, on June 3.

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Credit...Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

Preparing a body for a funeral in Lviv on June 2.

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Credit...Diego Ibarra Sanchez for The New York Times

Fires burned at the Lysychansk oil refinery on June 8.

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Credit...Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

A Ukrainian police officer on June 8 near a destroyed bridge that once connected the embattled cities of Lysychansk and Sievierodonetsk.

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Credit...Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

An unexploded Russian rocket protruded out of the pavement in the city of Lysychansk on June 8.

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Credit...Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

A monk in the doorway of a building heavily damaged by Russian artillery at the Sviatohirsk monastery complex on June 3.

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Credit...Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

Ukrainian troops firing artillery at Russian positions in the Donetsk region of eastern Ukraine on May 22.

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Credit...Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

A fighter jet, most likely Russian, firing flares over Ukrainian positions on the front line on May 22 in the Donetsk region.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

A Ukrainian sniper put a suppressor on his rifle at a small base in the eastern Ukrainian town of Barvinkove in the Kharkiv region on May 22.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

Destroyed vehicles at a complex bombed by Russian forces on May 23 in the frontline town of Bakhmut in Ukraine’s eastern Donetsk region.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

Mykola Telegin clearing debris in his daughter’s apartment after a Russian strike hit a residential area in Sloviansk on May 31.

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Credit...Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

Volunteers from Britain and Ukraine working with the aid organization Vostok-SOS carried Zinaida Riabtseva, who is 77, blind and struggled to walk down five flights of stairs, during a May 30 evacuation mission in Bakhmut.

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Credit...Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

Anna Vereschak, 43, and her daughters Milana, 5, and Diana, 4, escaped their village on the front and boarded an evacuation train in Pokrovsk, on May 10.

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Credit...Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

Ukrainian policemen disposed of the body of a 65-year-old woman, known to neighbors as Baba Masha, or Grandma Masha, who was diabetic and unable to get the medication she needed because of the war. She was buried May 24 in a mass grave for those killed in fighting, in the city of Lysychansk in Ukraine’s eastern Donetsk region.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

Ukrainian soldiers on the front line near Izium in the Donetsk region on May 27.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

Soldiers with the Carpathian Sich Battalion reviewing drone footage of an attack against Russian forces near the front in the Kharkiv region on May 11.

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Credit...Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

A Ukrainian artillery team engaging in an exchange with Russian forces four miles away near the village of Vuhledar in the Donetsk region, on May 31.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

An overturned car is seen in front of a house in the Saltivka neighborhood of Kharkiv, Ukraine, on May 27.

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Credit...Nicole Tung for The New York Times

Vladislav Tkachenko, 23, at his temporary home in Lviv on May 24. Mr. Tkachenko lost his left leg on the second day of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine when artillery fire blew it off and tore into his right thigh, leaving a web of dark red scars. He is among the first in what Ukrainian doctors fear could become a devastating surge of amputations as Ukraine pushes to regain territory and the fighting in the east intensifies.

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Credit...Diego Ibarra Sanchez for The New York Times

The coffins of three Ukrainian soldiers were carried out of a church where they were mourned in Lviv, Ukraine, on May 6.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

The family of Yurii Huk, 41, including his daughter, Darynka, 8, his niece and other relatives, during his funeral outside Saints Peter and Paul Garrison Church in Lviv on May 16. He died during an artillery bombardment in eastern Ukraine on May 9.

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Credit...Diego Ibarra Sanchez for The New York Times

National flags flying at a military cemetery in the eastern city of Dnipro on May 10.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

A family that fled from the Russian-occupied city of Mariupol arrived in Zaporizhzhia in southeast Ukraine on May 2.

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Credit...Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

Twin sisters Nika and Miya, 3, on May 8 surveying vehicles destroyed in the war near Irpin.

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Credit...Daniel Berehulak for The New York Times

Destroyed Russian military vehicles by the National Military History Museum in Mykhailivska Square in Kyiv, Ukraine, on May 23.

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Credit...Nicole Tung for The New York Times

A Ukrainian soldier assigned to a demining team worked to detonate unexploded ordnance collected from a Russian munitions storage area in a village northwest of Kyiv.

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Credit...Daniel Berehulak for The New York Times

Emergency workers removing the remains of four Russian soldiers at a Russian fighting position that was struck by Ukrainian artillery in the previously occupied village of Malaya Rohan outside the eastern Ukrainian city of Kharkiv on May 18.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

Irpin, a suburb of Kyiv, lays in ruins on May 2 after weeks of fierce fighting between Russian and Ukrainian forces on the doorstep of the capital.

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Credit...David Guttenfelder for The New York Times

A Ukrainian soldier atop an abandoned Russian tank on May 25 in the Seversky Donets river, trying to salvage an abandoned heavy machine gun. The failed river crossing that took place at this spot over several days in early May was one of the most lethal engagements of the war for the Russian army.

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Ukrainian soldiers loading onto an armored vehicle as they head toward the frontline near the city of Kramatorsk in Ukraine’s eastern Donetsk region, on May 25.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

A cat near the body of a Russian soldier on May 19 outside the destroyed school in Vilkhivka, a village that had been occupied for weeks by Russian forces.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

The body of a civilian, reportedly killed by Russian forces, remained on the streets on April 2 in Bucha.

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Credit...Daniel Berehulak for The New York Times

Exhuming bodies from a mass grave in Bucha on April 8.

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Credit...Daniel Berehulak for The New York Times

Bodies found after Russian forces retreated from Bucha, on April 6.

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Credit...Daniel Berehulak for The New York Times

Ukrainian soldiers attempted to salvage parts from a destroyed Russian armored vehicle in the recently liberated town of Bucha on April 3.

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Credit...Daniel Berehulak for The New York Times

Russian rockets struck a neighborhood in central Kharkiv on April 17.

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Credit...Tyler Hicks/The New York Times

The funeral of Ivan Datsko, 38, a Ukrainian soldier who was killed in fighting in the eastern Donetsk region, at Saints Peter and Paul Garrison Church in Lviv on April 21.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

Sister Diogena Tereshkevych comforting people who were displaced from eastern Ukraine, inside a bomb shelter during an air raid alert in the western Ukrainian city of Lviv on April 15.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

Borodyanka, a commuter town not far from the capital, Kyiv, on April 5, where as many as 200 people were missing and presumed dead under the rubble.

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Credit...Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

An apartment building heavily damaged by recent Russian bombings in Kramatorsk on April 10.

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Credit...Tyler Hicks/The New York Times

Dozens of vehicles and some people on foot, clinging to their belongings, streamed into Kharkiv, once Ukraine’s second largest city, on April 29, fleeing fighting in a town to the north.

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Credit...Tyler Hicks/The New York Times

An artist entertained children with soap bubbles in central Lviv, in western Ukraine, on April 7.

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Credit...Mauricio Lima for The New York Times

Ukrainian soldiers walked through a street in the village of Shestovytsia, where a column of destroyed Russian military vehicles was cleared away, on April 29.

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Credit...Daniel Berehulak for The New York Times

A wounded Ukrainian soldier who was brought in earlier this morning to the military hospital is brought into a ward after hours of surgery, where doctors were trying to save his arm following an attack by Russian forces, in Zaporizhzhia, in South Eastern on April 25.

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Credit...Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

Family members mourning Oleksandr Pokhodenko and Mykola Pysariv on April 26 in Zmiiv, Ukraine.

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Credit...Tyler Hicks/The New York Times

Hlib Kihitov, 21, paying his final respects to his twin brother, Ehor Kihitov, in Lviv on April 26.

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Credit...Finbarr O'Reilly for The New York Times

A woman peered out from a bombed-out apartment in central Kyiv on April 29 after an overnight Russian missile strike.

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Credit...David Guttenfelder for The New York Times

Tamara Mikheenko, 70, cries while in hiding in a basement shelter as she talks about the incessant shelling of the frontline town of Orikhiv, where Russian positions are only a few miles away in Zaporizhzhia region on April 26.

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Credit...Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

Russian insignia left behind on the pitch wall of Valriy Tymchuk at his home in Lypivka, Ukraine, on April 15.

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Credit...David Guttenfelder for The New York Times

Trostyanets, Ukraine, on April 1 after the Ukrainian military retook it from the Russians.

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Credit...Tyler Hicks/The New York Times

A military funeral ceremony in Lviv, on April 6.

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Credit...Mauricio Lima for The New York Times

Maksim Syroizhko, a Ukrainian soldier, with his girlfriend, Yana Matvapaeva, on April 21 in Kyiv. The couple said that they had been together for the past five years but, until that day, had not seen each other since the war began.

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Credit...David Guttenfelder for The New York Times

Families arriving in Zaporizhzhia, Ukraine, on April 21 after fleeing Mariupol, which is under siege by Russian forces.

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Credit...Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

Residents of Bucha, a town retaken by Ukraine, reaching for food distributed by Ukrainian soldiers on April 2.

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Credit...Daniel Berehulak for The New York Times

Tatyana Petrovna, 72, in the garden of a Bucha home where the bodies of three civilians lay on April 4.

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Credit...Daniel Berehulak for The New York Times

Crumpled cars littered a main road leading out of the recently liberated town of Bucha on April 3.

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Credit...Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

A retired teacher known as Auntie Lyuda was killed on March 5. Her dog waited outside more than a month later on April 6.

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Credit...Daniel Berehulak for The New York Times

Four freshly dug graves, for an early-morning funeral, at a cemetery in Irpin on April 16.

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Credit...David Guttenfelder for The New York Times

On April 26, Iryna Abramova at the grave of her husband, Oleh Abramov, who was killed by Russian forces outside their home in Bucha.

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Credit...Daniel Berehulak for The New York Times

Ukrainian soldiers trying to save a mortally wounded man moments after a group of civilians was hit by a mortar in Irpin on March 6.

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Credit...Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

A Russian missile hit barracks used by airborne troops from the Ukrainian army’s 79th Brigade in Mykolaiv. Several soldiers were killed in the attack, which took off the facade of the building, leaving gray steel bunk beds visible from the front courtyard, on March 8.

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Credit...Tyler Hicks/The New York Times

Emergency employees and volunteers carried an injured pregnant woman from a maternity hospital damaged by Russian shelling in Mariupol, on March 9. She was reported to have died.

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Credit...Evgeniy Maloletka/Associated Press

A Russian tank attack on an apartment building in Mariupol, which has endured days of heavy bombardment, on March 11.

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Credit...Evgeniy Maloletka/Associated Press

Boarding an evacuation train in Odesa on March 15.

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Credit...Tyler Hicks/The New York Times

A Ukrainian volunteer fighter outside the civilian airport in Mykolaiv on March 10.

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Credit...Tyler Hicks/The New York Times

Russian forces hit a shopping mall on March 21 in Kyiv, in what appeared to be the most powerful explosion yet in the capital.

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Credit... Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

A man grieving over the body of a victim after pieces of a Russian cruise missile fell onto a high-rise building in Kyiv, on March 17.

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Credit...Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

People trying to escape from Irpin, near Kyiv, took shelter under a destroyed bridge on March 5.

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Credit...Emilio Morenatti/Associated Press

Civilians being evacuated across the Irpin River into Kyiv on March 8.

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Credit...Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

Bodies were buried in a mass grave on Wednesday on the outskirts of Mariupol on March 9.

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Credit...Evgeniy Maloletka/Associated Press

Ukrainian soldiers waiting to advance during an operation to clear out remaining Russian forces on March 29, in Irpin.

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Credit...Daniel Berehulak for The New York Times

Destroyed Russian tanks on a main road after battles near Brovary, close to Kyiv, on March 10.

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Credit...Felipe Dana/Associated Press

Ukrainian soldiers taking cover from incoming artillery fire in Irpin, on the outskirts of Kyiv, on March 13.

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Credit...Felipe Dana/Associated Press

Anzhelika Verveyko was comforted by a friend at the funeral on March 6 for her husband,a sergeant who was killed in an artillery strike on his position north of Kyiv on Feb. 27.

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Credit...Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

Taria, 27, in a tent where she was living with her two children, and other Ukrainian families in a subway station on March 2. Many of them had been there for about a week as Russian and Ukrainian forces fought on the outskirts of Kyiv.

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Credit...Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

Fleeing the war in Ukraine. A train station in Przemysl, Poland, on March 14.

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Credit...Erin Schaff/The New York Times

Ukrainian children riding an evacuation train through Kyiv as it traveled west toward Lviv on March 3.

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Credit...Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

Ukrainian families running across train tracks to get to the next westbound train in Kyiv on March 4.

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Credit...Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

A home on the outskirts of Kyiv on March 25, which was damaged after a Russian Iskander missile landed near during the first week of the war.

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Credit... Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

Ilona Koval, center, the choreographer for the Ukrainian national figure skating team, fleeing Ukraine with her daughter, left, and a family friend on March 1.

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Credit...Laetitia Vancon for The New York Times

A Ukrainian mother and her newborn in a maternity ward in the basement of a hospital in Kyiv on March 2.

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Credit...Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

A refugee family from Ukraine arriving at a train station in Budapest on March 5.

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Credit...Mauricio Lima for The New York Times

Vitali Slobodianiuk, right, and Volodymyr Kotsyuba, who are Ukrainian, on a train from Prague to Przemysl in Poland on March 8. They were going back to Ukraine to join the fight.

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Credit...Emile Ducke for The New York Times

A Ukrainian soldier digging in at a beachfront position in Odesa on March 16.

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Credit...Tyler Hicks/The New York Times

A military funeral for three Ukrainian soldiers in Lviv, in western Ukraine, on March 31.

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Credit...Mauricio Lima for The New York Times

The morgue in Mykolaiv on March 12. Casualties, both military and civilian, accumulated so fast it could barely keep pace, with bodies stacked side by side or on top of one another, covered in sheets or carpets, if at all.

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Credit...Tyler Hicks/The New York Times

The body of a Russian soldier next to an armored vehicle that Ukrainian soldiers said was Russian, in Kharkiv on Feb. 25.

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Credit...Tyler Hicks/The New York Times

A residential building was hit by missiles in Kyiv on Feb. 25.

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Credit...Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

Russian attacks damaged radar arrays and other equipment at a Ukrainian military site outside Mariupol on Feb. 24.

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Credit...Evgeniy Maloletka/Associated Press

Julia, a teacher and a volunteer, waiting to be deployed to fight Russian troops around Kyiv on Feb. 26.

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Credit... Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

People lining up at a long-distance bus station in the center of Kyiv on Feb. 24.

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Credit...Emile Ducke for The New York Times

A Russian armored personnel carrier burning next to an unidentified soldier’s body during a fight with the Ukrainian armed forces in Kharkiv on Feb. 27.

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Credit...Sergey Bobok/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

Covering a body after bombings in Chuhuiv, on Feb. 24.

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Credit...Aris Messinis/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

Smoke from a military airport in Chuhuiv near Kharkiv, Ukraine, on Feb. 24.

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Credit...Aris Messinis/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

A family from Ukraine after crossing the border into Poland at Medyka on Feb. 26.

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Credit...Mauricio Lima for The New York Times

Olha Zapotochna and her 3-year-old son, Arthur, after crossing the border from Ukraine into Poland, on Feb. 25.

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Credit...Maciek Nabrdalik for The New York Times

Volunteers filling sand bags in Kropyvnytskyi, southern Ukraine, on Feb. 27, in an effort to fortify the city’s defenses.

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Credit...Tyler Hicks/The New York Times

Military volunteers getting weapons in Fastiv on Feb. 25.

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Credit...Brendan Hoffman for The New York Times

Cleaning up debris after a residential building was hit by missiles in south Kyiv, on Feb. 25.

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Credit...Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

Sunday service at St. Paraskeva Orthodox Church in Kalynivka, Ukraine, on Feb. 27.

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Credit...Brendan Hoffman for The New York Times

Dusk in Kyiv on Feb. 24, as Russian forces were advancing on the city.

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Credit...Brendan Hoffman for The New York Times